ACE - (Acepromazine): Precautions, Side-Effects, Overdose

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kiwani
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ACE - (Acepromazine): Precautions, Side-Effects, Overdose

Postby kiwani » Sun Jun 25, 2006 7:14 am

"ACE (Acepromazine): Precautions, Side-Effects, Overdose"

Especially note "precautions" section for older, debilitated dogs, breed differences...


Excerpts:

Acepromazine causes hypotension (low blood pressure) due to decreased vasomotor tone. It may change heart and respiratory rate, and thermoregulatory ability allowing for either hypo- or hyperthermia.

Acepromazine is usually less effective if given after the animal is excited. There is a great deal of individual variability in the response to acepromazine and despite being a very commonly used medication there are important species and even breed differences in response to acepromazine that need to be taken into consideration (see precautions).


Side Effects

• Common: Acepromazine will cause hypotension, decreased respiratory rate and bradycardia. Dogs are particularly sensitive to cardiovascular side effects but cardiovascular collapse has also occurred in cats. Sudden collapse, decreased or absent pulse and breathing, pale gums, and unconsciousness may occur in some animals.

• Rare: fatal interactions with anesthetics have been reported.

• Acepromazine will cause a dose dependent decrease in hematocrit in both dogs and horses. This effect occurs within 30 minutes of administration and may last for 12 hours or more. The hematocrit in horses may decrease by as much as 50%.



Precautions

• Acepromazine lowers blood pressure: it should not be used in animals that are dehydrated, anemic or in shock.

• Acepromazine should be avoided or used with extreme caution in older animals, or those with liver disease, heart disease, injury, or debilitation. If it is used in these animals, it should be given in very small doses. In some older animals, a very small dose can have a marked and very prolonged effect.

• Dogs: Giant breeds and greyhounds may be extremely sensitive to acepromazine, while terriers may require higher doses. Brachycephalic breeds, especially Boxers, are particularly prone to cardiovascular side effects (drop in blood pressure and slow heart rate). Acepromazine should be avoided or used with great caution in these breeds.


Drug Interactions

• Animals receiving acepromazine will require lower doses of barbiturates, narcotics, and other anesthetics. These combinations increase central nervous system depression.


Overdose

• Overdose will cause excessive sedation, slow respiratory and heart rate, pale gums, unsteady gait, poor coordination, and inability to stand. It may also cause sudden collapse, unconsciousness, seizures and death.

• Oral overdose should be treated by emptying the stomach along with monitoring and other supportive care.

• Phenylephrine and norepinephrine are the drugs of choice to treat acepromazine-induced hypotension. Barbiturates, or diazepam may be used for the treatment of seizures associated with overdose.

http://www.wedgewoodpharmacy.com/monogr ... aleate.asp

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Postby kiwani » Mon Jun 26, 2006 6:22 am

ACE - Excerpt #2


"CONCERNS AND CAUTIONS"
 
Acepromazine is not consistently absorbed into the body when given orally. This means that some pets are hardly tranquilized while others are heavily sedated. More consistent results are obtained with the injectable product.
 
Acepromazine is best not used in patients where circulation is in question. Acepromazine dilates blood vessels which leads to a drop in blood pressure. Injured patients or patients in shock should not have this medication.
   
Acepromazine should not be used in anemic patients. By dilating the blood vessels in the spleen, Acepromazine use leads to increased red blood cell storage in the spleen, leading to an approximately 5% drop in red cell count. This is not important in normal pets but if there has already been a blood loss this drop in red cell count could be significant.
 
Acepromazine should not be used in patients with known liver disease. Acepromazine is removed from the body by the liver and if the liver is not working, tranquilization can be markedly prolonged.

http://www.veterinarypartner.com/Conten ... &A=570&S=1

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Postby Rogansmommy » Mon Jun 26, 2006 7:39 am

Thanks for posting this Kiwani.

I HATE Acing Rogan. It has absolutely no effect on him until he gets home. He is one of those dogs that can temporarily override it. When the vet upped the dosage to 3 tablets :shock: , I refused to medicate him.
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Postby kiwani » Mon Jun 26, 2006 9:03 am

Re: "When the vet upped the dosage to 3 tablets, I refused to medicate him."
---

What vets too often fail to take into account, are the individual differences in 'respiratory anatomy'. Some Chows are much more 'gruntier' and 'snortier' due to differences in the soft palate, nasal opening size, throat size, etc. This makes a difference when they become stressed, and it makes a difference when they are sedated.

Rogan has had throat problems and a vocal cord problem in the past, and Pekoe has just experienced nasal inflammation/severe dryness, partly due to the cancer vaccines. These kinds of things should be taken into consideration when dosing sedatives as well.

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Postby Rogansmommy » Mon Jun 26, 2006 9:10 am

kiwani wrote:Re: "When the vet upped the dosage to 3 tablets, I refused to medicate him."
---

What vets too often fail to take into account, are the individual differences in 'respiratory anatomy'. Some Chows are much more 'gruntier' and 'snortier' due to differences in the soft palate, nasal opening size, throat size, etc. This makes a difference when they become stressed, and it makes a difference when they are sedated.

Rogan has had throat problems and a vocal cord problem in the past, and Pekoe has just experienced nasal inflammation/severe dryness, partly due to the cancer vaccines. These kinds of things should be taken into consideration when dosing sedatives as well.


Oh yes. And thankfully, my current vet completely gets that. We've already set up a plan if the need to anesthetize him comes up. It involves me in the OR to keep him calm. I'd rather that then the alternative.
Michele

^Rogan^ at the Bridge on 5/16/09 -- always in my heart

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Postby Victory » Mon Jun 26, 2006 12:37 pm

My problem with using a sedative on a dog, (or cat) for a routine checkup is that if the animal is sedated how can unknown things be found on palpatation? I knew Darkwind was limping some, but couldn't tell if it was his wrist, elbow or shoulder, the Vet had to manipulate the limb and get him to respond to the pain to begin to diagnos the problem. This would have been impossible if he were sedated, he barely responded wide awake, (he just pulled his leg away slightly) If they are being checked for known problem or if they have a problem with being at the vets, (Pekoe for example) then okay, if necessary, but not just because they are chows.

But the most important thing I think if to teach your chow that being touched in certain ways is okay. I touch my chows everywhere on their bodies and if I find an area they are sensitive to I push it, not in a mean or "I'm the human and you have to deal" kind of way but in a "we need to get you past this" way. Like teaching them to accept getting their ears cleaned, I began by petting their heads and then moving my thumbs into their ears, just a bit giving them a massage there, then I could do that and they were leaning into the massage I started using the little towletes with ear cleaner on them, now I can just do it without all the fighting or trying to get away.

Also Darkwind has sensitive sides and when I would first try to brush him he'd snap a little, I'd give him a correction and then do it again, and once I was done and he'd been okay with it, he got a treat. Now he gets brushed and there is no snapping.

It is important that any animal tolerate any touch given by their owner, and with young dogs this should be a part of their training as much as socialization. Having their feet picked up, their tails looked at, (the back ends) their tummies touched and squeezed a bit, should be something they are used to.
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Postby willowchow » Mon Jun 26, 2006 5:17 pm

Thanks Kiwani--I did not know about this drug before recently reading about it here. Thank you for the additional information.
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Postby Jeff&Peks » Mon Jun 26, 2006 6:42 pm

Thats to much to read, whats the morel of the story, to Ace or not to Ace that is the question. Whats a good dosage for a Chow? Like I said I don't like any of this stuff but Pekoe needs something to calm here down.

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Postby kiwani » Tue Jun 27, 2006 7:05 am

Re: "Whats a good dosage for a Chow?"
---

There is no magic number, because the drug's effect is highly variable in individual dogs, depending on *many* factors. It can even make some dogs more aggressive.

It was meant for use in young dogs in good to excellent health. There are other sedatives for older dogs, debilitated dogs, and for dogs in pain.

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Postby TiVo's Mom » Wed Jun 28, 2006 5:29 pm

What is everyone giving this to their dog for, vet visits or other things? I'm curious because the vet just prescribed this as a trial for our shepherd mix. He was a rescue dog and had been mistreated as a puppy and though he is a sweetie with us he has fear aggression when anyone other than us is around and as he has gotten older it has extended to fireworks and now thunder. A few weeks ago we had him crated while we were at work and a storm came through, he got so frantic that he moved his crate two feet from it's location AND ate a 4 x 4 window in the side of his crate. There was blood on the couch and floor that I can only assume came from his gums as he was chewing through the hard plastic crate. I talked to the vet about it today because with July 4th coming up and it being the season for hot stormy weather I'm afraid he's going to hurt himself when we're not home to monitor him. Because of the intensity of his fright the vet felt that something milder wouldn't be effective. However, I don't want to harm him by giving him this medication either???

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Postby kiwani » Wed Aug 09, 2006 10:04 am

Sending this thread back to the top, (for health forum question)

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Postby Auddymay » Wed Aug 09, 2006 10:10 am

I am so glad that Lily has always behaved with the vet. Of all the flaws in personality, so to speak, this one has the worst reprocussions. I can only hope she keeps her vetitude in later life!

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Postby 3blackchows » Thu Aug 10, 2006 5:25 pm

Thank you!!! I greatly appreciate all of your knowledge & information regarding the subject.
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Re: ACE - (Acepromazine): Precautions, Side-Effects, Overdose

Postby kiwani » Tue Apr 21, 2009 1:47 pm

Ace, is no longer appropriate when used to sedate fearful animals, and should be discontinued.

http://www.fearfuldogs.com/acearticle.html

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Re:

Postby Hayley92 » Wed Oct 24, 2012 6:15 am

Victory wrote:My problem with using a sedative on a dog, (or cat) for a routine checkup is that if the animal is sedated how can unknown things be found on palpatation? I knew Darkwind was limping some, but couldn't tell if it was his wrist, elbow or shoulder, the Vet had to manipulate the limb and get him to respond to the pain to begin to diagnos the problem. This would have been impossible if he were sedated, he barely responded wide awake, (he just pulled his leg away slightly) If they are being checked for known problem or if they have a problem with being at the vets, (Pekoe for example) then okay, if necessary, but not just because they are chows.



It is important that any animal tolerate any touch given by their owner, and with young dogs this should be a part of their training as much as socialization. Having their feet picked up, their tails looked at, (the back ends) their tummies touched and squeezed a bit, should be something they are used to.


Conditions such as ruptured cruciate and luxating patella often require sedation to diagnose.Best way to explain is a concious dog holds its muscles too tight over its joints. When sedated these muscles relax and the tell tale 'wobbling' of a joint for cruciate can be seen. Luxating patellas can be manually dislocated, in a dog with good patellas you shouldnt be able to.

I totally agree with socializing puppies to be used to being touched, 100 percent agree that if you can get your dog used to being touched by not just yourself but by stranger it can avoid sedation.

If I am correct in speaking 'ACE' is the same as 'ACP' which im pretty sure is being phased out?


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